Tuesday 25 August 2015


Background to the Study
In most countries, it is compulsory for children to receive primary education although it is permissible for parents to provide it. The major goals of primary education are achieving basic literacy and numeracy among all pupils, as well as establishing foundations in science, mathematics, geography, history and other social sciences. Basic sexual education is also received by pupils attending primary school. The relative priority of various areas, and the methods used to teach them, are an area of considerable political debate.
Typically, primary education is provided in schools, where the child will stay in steadily advancing classes until they complete it and move on to high school/secondary school. Children are usually placed in classes with one teacher who will be primarily responsible for their education and welfare for that year. This teacher may be assisted to varying degrees by specialist teachers in certain subject areas, often music or physical education. The continuity with a single teacher and the opportunity to build up a close relationship with the class is a notable feature of the primary education system.
Traditionally, various forms of corporal punishment have been an integral part of early education. This practice has recently come under scrutiny and in many cases has been outlawed, especially in Western countries.
The teacher is the pivot on which the educational process rests. In fact, the importance and place of teacher in the education process is highly priced by all nations of the world. Little wanders why the Federal Government of Nigeria clearly stated that no education system can rise above the quality of its teachers. Thus, teachers should be provided with the intellectual and professional background adequate for their assignment and make them adequate to changing situations (FRN, 2009). It is important that teachers’ voices are widely accepted as the driving force for educational improvement and development, particularly at this time when the education system faces so many challenges and conflicting pressures.
However, whatever the influences of the teacher would be on the system of education, it can only be determined by the teacher’s quality, teacher’s quantity and teacher’s value (Abodunrin and Ogundore, 2006). This scenario calls for teacher professionalism in order to enhance the role of teachers in the formulation and implementation of educational policies in Nigeria. Nigeria needs teachers who will meet the expectations of the nation; teachers who will help the nation raise a generation of citizens whose performance will meet the international standards; a generation that will be prosperous, vibrant and peaceful. This notion cannot achieve the expected quality education without competent teachers and school administrators who are well equipped with the desirable knowledge, skills and effective operations of the education system (Wokoha, 2014). The Teachers Registration Council of Nigeria (TRCN, 2010), advocates that teaching just like other professions now requires that only those who are adequately prepared and regulated should be entrusted with the teaching- learning process.

          The quality of education of a nation could be determined by the quality of her teachers. The most important factor in improving students’ achievement in Government is by employing seasoned qualified teachers in all schools (Abe and Adu, 2013). Okuruwa (1999) found that, policy investment on quality of teachers is related to improvement in students’ performance. Specifically, the measurement of teacher’s preparation and certification are correlated with students’ achievement in government and others social science subject. It is further reported that, teacher’s characteristics such as certification status and degree in area of specialization are very significant and positively correlated with students learning outcomes in government . This report was in line with the findings of Salman (2009).
Abe and Adu (2013) and Wiki (2013) opined that, a teaching qualification or teacher qualification is one of a number of academic and professional degree that enables a person to become a registered teacher in primary or secondary school. Such qualifications include, but are not limited to, the Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGDE). The Professional Diploma in Education (PDE), Bachelor of Education (B.Ed) and Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE). In Ekiti State, teachers who are academically qualified and those that are professionally qualified are engaged to carry out instructional process (Ahiazu and Prince Will, 2011).
Academically qualified teachers refer to those who have academic training as a result of enrolment into educational institution and obtained qualifications such as HND, B.Sc, B.A, and M.A. and so on; while professionally qualified teachers are those who got professional training that gave them professional knowledge, skills, techniques, aptitudes as different from the general education (Edu and Kalu, 2012). They hold degrees like, B.Ed., B.Sc. Ed, B.A. Ed, and M.Ed and so on. On the other hand, there are studies that have found no significant relationship between teacher educational qualification and students’ academic achievement. For instance, Igwe (1990) investigated the influence of teacher’s qualification on academic performance of students in science subjects in Kano State. The researcher found no significant relationship between teacher’s qualification and students’ performance. While Adeniji (1999), Osokoya (1999) and Oladele (1999) found out that teacher’s qualification contributed minimally to the variance with students’ cognitive achievement and Bilesanmi (1999) and Okonwa (1999) found that teacher’s experience was highly significant on students’ academic achievement in Political Science . Coonery (1990) opined that students do not understand Government when it is taught by an ineffective teacher. Izumi and Evess (2002) buttressed this by saying that teacher quality is the most important among other critical factors like quality curricula, funding, small class size and learning situation. George (2004) attributed poor achievement of students in Government to teacher qualification, inadequacy of materials as well as administrative factors. In teaching Political Science , Adesina (1982) and Fafunwa (1985) opined that with an exception of holders of minimum of B.Sc in Political Science , many other teachers would be confronted with problem of teaching College of Education Government syllabus effectively. Hence, Lussa (1985) argued that no one gives what he/she does not possess. He further said that no matter how good a course curriculum is, if we do not have well trained, qualified and motivated teachers, we may not achieve the desired goals. In view of this, a teacher is someone who has been exposed to a good measure of training in a teaching subject area as well as in professional education:such professionally qualified teachers may according to the Federal Ministry of Education (2004) fall into a number of academic categories. Mkpa (1987) regarded the trained teacher as someone who underwent and completed his education in a formal teacher training institution or in a planned programme of training. Among such areas of training may include principles and practice of education as well as being exposed to an observed period of internship either after or as part of the period of training. People who fall within this category should under normal circumstances be able to fulfill the various functions expected of teachers within and outside the four walls of the classroom. Furrugia (1987) perceived a professional teacher as one who possesses professionally based knowledge in the theory and practice of education as well as find job satisfaction in the belief that he/she is making an important contribution to the social, cultural and economic development of his/her country. Such a teacher should equally, be able to understand students’ abilities to exploit educational benefits of the social context within which he/she lives. He/She s hould be able to assist Students to reach their full intellectual and social Abe 11 potentials. According to Adieze (1986) non qualified and non-professional teachers in teaching profession are killing the profession because they are not really teachers. He regarded them as “bird” of passage that create unnecessary vacuum whenever they see greener pasture and better prospect in the profession they are originally trained for. The comparison of students’ scores in Government achievement test based on teachers’ qualifications becomes necessary in order to know if formal teaching methods has any significant effect/influence on students’ performance in Government or not.
Poor academic performance is a performance that is adjudged by the examinee/testee and some other s significant as falling below an expected standard. Poor academic performance has been observed in school subject’s especially Government  among College of Education students.
Academic failure is not only frustrating to the students and parents, its effect are equally grave on the society in terms of dearth of man power. In all spheres of the economy and politics.
Education at College of Education level is supposed to be the bedrock and the foundation toward higher knowledge in tertiary institutions.  It is an investment as well as an instrument that can be used to achieve a more rapid economic, social, and political, technology, scientific and cultural development in the country.
The national policy on education (2004) stipulated that secondary education is an instrument for national development that fosters the worth and development of the society and equality of educational opportunities to all Nigerian children, irrespective of any real marginal disabilities.
The role of secondary education is to lay the foundation for further education and if a good foundation is laid at this level, there are likely to be no problem at subsequent levels. However, different people at different times have passed the blame of poor performance in College of Education to students because of their low retention parental factors, association with wrong peers, low achievement motivation and the likes (Aremu and Sokan, 2003; Aremu and  Oluwole 2001; Aremu, 2000).
Falling level of academic achievement is attributable to teacher’s non-use of verbal reinforcement strategy, others found out that the attitude of some teachers to their job is reflected in their poor attendance to lessons, lateness, to school, unsavory comments about students performance that could damage their ego, poor method of teaching and the likes affect pupil’s academic performance.

Statement of the problem
Primary teaching is a challenging and diverse career, requiring a range of personal, professional and academic qualities. Successful  teachers have an in-depth understanding of the complex processes  of learning, based on their own engagement with theory, research and practice. Students of Primary Education, therefore, are involved from the outset in exploring innovative ways of working with children, putting the learner at the centre of everything they do.
Teaching and learning of primary education course in college of education  depends to a large extent on teacher’s own knowledge of the content and ability to adequately deliver the instruction to the students. However a lot of variables may inhibit or hinder effective dissemination of knowledge to the understanding of the content by the students, such variables may be lack of qualified teachers, teachers’ qualification, experience, inadequate use of instructional materials among others. While the present study sought to determine the  impact of teacher qualification on students academic performance in primary education studies in college of Education Ikere Ekiti
Objective of the study
The major objective of this study is to investigate the impact of teacher qualification and working experiences as a panacea on students academic performance in primary education studies in college of education Ikere Ekiti.
Also the specific objective is to
1.     To determine teacher qualification on student academic performance in primary education studies
2.     To determine the perception of teacher on students poor performance and teacher’s qualification?
3.     To determine the attitude of teacher towards teaching and learning of primary Education in College of Education
4.      To determine the effect of  student’s poor academic performance and teacher’s method of teaching primary education studies
Research Questions
This research will attempt to answer the following questions.
1.     What are the impact of teachers qualification on students academic performance in primary education courses?
2.     What are the impact of teaching experience on students academic performance in primary education course?
3.     Does instructional materials have impact on students academic performance in primary education?
4.     What effect does teachers attitude have on students academic performance?
5.     Does instructional material have impact on students academic performance in primary education?
Research Hypothesis
1.     There is no significant difference between teachers’ qualification and student performance in primary education courses  .
2.     There is no significant difference between teachers’ experience and students performance in primary education
3.     There is no significant difference between teachers’ method of teaching and students performance in primary education.
4.     There is no significant difference between teachers’ attitude and students performance in primary education
Significances of the Study
This study is considered significant in the sense that it will generate sufficient data useful to teachers and government that are concerned with the welfare of students. Also, it is hopeful that the study will provide data on impact of teachers qualification on the academic performances of the students in primary education in college of Education
   Also, it will help the curriculum planners to known if teacher qualification is the major factors of student poor academic performance in the sample school.
            The outcome of this research study  create data that will help in future research. The result of the study would assist the federal government and the ministry of Education on how to improve the conditions of the standard of living among undergraduate students in order to employ efforts to reduce stress in tertiary schools in Nigeria.
Scope  of the Study
This research work focus on the impact of teacher qualification and working experience as a panancea on students academic performance in primary education studies in college of education, Ikere Ekiti. The study covers  fifty randomly selected  students from primary education department and fifty (50) teachers were used for the study. Therefore the total respondents that will part take in this study is one hundred.